Neesopah, a Cheyenne word for Black Water, is one of the four reservoirs commonly known as the Great Plains Reservoirs.
Located just south of Eads in Kiowa County, named after the Kiowa Indians, Neesopah and its sister reservoirs Neegronda, Neenoshe, and Neeskah are modified playa lakes or natural-basin reservoirs. Playa is Spanish for beach and describes the almost 25,000 shallow lakes that dot the southern Great Plains. Some playa lakes are only a foot deep, and with an average depth of less than ten feet, Neesopah is typical. Depressions formed by compacted sediment, historically playa lakes provided water for wildlife and the native people in the area. More recently, they have been used to store flood water for irrigation.
The Great Plains Reservoirs were built by the Great Plains Water Company and were used for irrigation for the first time in 1990. They are the most extensive natural-basin reservoir project in the west. Water is diverted from the Arkansas River through a series of canals and gates to the reservoirs. With the exception Neeskah, the reservoirs are networked together and can be accessed as needed for irrigation causing water levels to fluctuate. Water levels are currently managed by the Arkansas Valley Sugar Beet and Irrigated Land Company.